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Exception Dealing with in C++ | What’s Exception Dealing with in C++


Exception dealing with in C++ is a specific situation for builders to deal with. In programming, committing errors that immediate uncommon situations known as errors is regular. All in all, these errors are of three varieties:

  1. Syntax Error
  2. Logical Error 
  3. Runtime Error

What’s Exception Dealing with in C++? 

Exception dealing with in C++ is a mechanism that enables a program to take care of runtime errors and distinctive conditions in a structured and managed method. In C++, exceptions are used to deal with errors that happen throughout the execution of a program, equivalent to division by zero, accessing invalid reminiscence, or file I/O errors.

The fundamental concept behind exception dealing with is to separate the traditional circulation of program execution from error-handling code. As a substitute of terminating this system abruptly when an error happens, C++ gives a strategy to “throw” an exception, representing the error or distinctive situation. The thrown exception is then caught by acceptable “catch” blocks, the place this system can deal with the error gracefully.

Right here’s a primary define of how exception dealing with works in C++:

  1. Throwing an Exception:
    When a vital error happens throughout program execution, you need to use the throw assertion to boost an exception. It often takes an object as an argument, which serves because the illustration of the error.
#embrace <iostream>

void someFunction(int worth) {
    if (worth == 0)
        throw std::runtime_error("Error: Division by zero!");
    // ... different code ...
}
  1. Catching an Exception:
    To catch an exception, you utilize a attempt block. The code that may elevate an exception is positioned contained in the attempt block. If an exception is thrown inside the attempt block, this system will instantly soar to the corresponding catch block.
int principal() {
    attempt {
        int x = 10;
        int y = 0;
        someFunction(x / y);
    } catch (const std::runtime_error& e) {
        std::cout << "Exception caught: " << e.what() << std::endl;
    }
    // ... different code ...
    return 0;
}
  1. Dealing with the Exception:
    The catch block handles the caught exception. It specifies the kind of exception it could catch in parentheses, adopted by a block of code that handles the distinctive situation.
  2. A number of Catch Blocks:
    You may have a number of catch blocks to deal with several types of exceptions. The primary catch block that matches the thrown exception’s sort shall be executed, and the others shall be skipped.
attempt {
    // code which will throw exceptions
} catch (const SomeExceptionType& e) {
    // deal with SomeExceptionType
} catch (const AnotherExceptionType& e) {
    // deal with AnotherExceptionType
} catch (...) {
    // deal with another exception that isn't caught by earlier catch blocks
}
  1. Exception Security:
    Exception security refers back to the idea of making certain {that a} program’s state stays constant even when an exception is thrown. Writing exception-safe code is crucial to forestall useful resource leaks and keep information integrity.

Through the use of exception dealing with, you may make your C++ packages extra strong and maintainable, as they supply a strategy to deal with errors in a managed method, relatively than having this system terminate abruptly on encountering a difficulty.

When no exception situation occurs, the code will execute ordinarily. The handlers shall be disregarded.

A easy instance to know Distinctive dealing with in C++

#embrace <iostream>

int principal() {
    attempt {
        // Code which will throw an exception
        int numerator = 10;
        int denominator = 0;
        int consequence = numerator / denominator;

        std::cout << "End result: " << consequence << std::endl;
    }
    catch (const std::exception& e) {
        std::cout << "Exception occurred: " << e.what() << std::endl;
    }

    return 0;
}

On this instance, the division operation numerator/denominator might throw a std::exception when the denominator is zero. The attempt block comprises the code that may throw an exception, and the catch block catches the exception and handles it appropriately.

Additionally, now you possibly can study Exception Dealing with in C – A Free On-line Course in Hindi

Why Exception Dealing with? 

Exception dealing with is an important idea in programming that enables builders to take care of sudden or distinctive conditions which will happen throughout the execution of a program. These distinctive conditions are sometimes called “exceptions.” Listed here are some the explanation why exception dealing with is essential:

  1. Error Administration: When a program encounters an error or sudden situation, with out exception dealing with, it’d crash or produce incorrect outcomes. Exception dealing with gives a structured strategy to take care of errors and permits builders to deal with them gracefully.
  2. Robustness: Exception dealing with enhances the robustness of the software program. By catching and dealing with exceptions, builders can stop your entire program from terminating abruptly and supply customers with significant error messages, making the software program extra user-friendly.
  3. Separation of Issues: Exception dealing with clearly separates regular program circulation and error working code. This separation makes the code simpler to learn, perceive, and keep.
  4. Debugging: Exception dealing with aids in debugging the code. When an exception is thrown, this system can log particulars in regards to the error, which helps builders establish and repair the problem’s root trigger.
  5. Sleek Restoration: In sure instances, packages can get better from exceptions and proceed execution as an alternative of crashing. For instance, an internet server can catch an exception attributable to a client-side error and reply with an acceptable HTTP error code as an alternative of shutting down.
  6. Program Stability: By dealing with exceptions appropriately, builders can be certain that this system stays secure and dependable even when dealing with sudden situations or inputs.
  7. Fail-Secure Operations: Exception dealing with is very essential when coping with vital operations like file I/O, community communication, or database transactions. Dealing with exceptions appropriately makes it potential to roll again transactions or carry out different crucial cleanup duties to take care of information integrity.
  8. Modularity: Exception dealing with permits for modular design and promotes code reusability. Features or strategies can throw exceptions, and the calling code can catch and deal with them accordingly.

Fundamental Key phrases in Exception Dealing with: 

Exception Dealing with in C++ falls round these three key phrases: 

What’s attempt throw catch in c++?

In C++, attempt, throw, and catch are key phrases used for exception dealing with. Exception dealing with permits builders to deal with errors or distinctive conditions gracefully and supply a structured strategy to handle sudden situations throughout the execution of a program.

Right here’s a quick rationalization of every key phrase:

  1. attempt: The code that may elevate an exception is included inside the attempt block. A number of catch blocks come after it. This system seems to be for a catch block that matches the attempt block when an exception is thrown inside the attempt block so as to deal with the exception.
  2. throw: To explicitly elevate or throw an exception, use the throw key phrase. Within the attempt block, it’s continuously employed when an distinctive circumstance arises. The management exits the attempt block when the throw assertion is met so as to find an appropriate catch block to deal with the exception.
  3. catch: The catch block follows the attempt block and is used to catch and deal with exceptions. It comprises code that executes when a selected sort of exception is thrown inside the related attempt block. A number of catch blocks can be utilized for various exception sorts.
attempt {
    // Code that may throw an exception
    // If an exception is thrown, management jumps to the corresponding catch block
} catch (ExceptionType1 e) {
    // Code to deal with ExceptionType1
} catch (ExceptionType2 e) {
    // Code to deal with ExceptionType2
} catch (...) {
    // Catch-all block to deal with another unhandled exceptions (elective)
}

How try-catch in c++ works?

In C++, exception dealing with is completed utilizing the try-catch mechanism. It means that you can catch and deal with exceptions that happen throughout the execution of your program. The attempt block comprises the code that may throw an exception, and it handles the exception if it happens. Right here’s the way it works:

  1. The code that may throw an exception is enclosed inside a attempt block. If an exception happens inside this block, the execution of the code inside the attempt block is straight away stopped, and this system seems to be for an identical catch block to deal with the exception.
  2. After an exception is thrown, this system searches for an identical catch block. An identical catch block is one that may deal with the particular sort of exception that was thrown. If an identical catch block is discovered, the code inside that block is executed.
  3. If no matching catch block is discovered inside the present scope, this system strikes up the decision stack, looking for an acceptable catch block within the calling features. This course of continues till an identical catch block is discovered or till this system reaches the highest stage of this system (i.e., principal() operate).
  4. As soon as an identical catch block is discovered, the code inside that block is executed, and this system continues executing from the purpose instantly after the try-catch block.

Right here’s an instance for example the utilization of try-catch:

#embrace <iostream>

int principal() {
    attempt {
        // Code that may throw an exception
        int num1, num2;
        std::cout << "Enter two numbers: ";
        std::cin >> num1 >> num2;

        if (num2 == 0) {
            throw std::runtime_error("Divide by zero exception");
        }

        int consequence = num1 / num2;
        std::cout << "End result: " << consequence << std::endl;
    }
    catch (const std::exception& e) {
        // Exception dealing with code
        std::cout << "Exception caught: " << e.what() << std::endl;
    }

    return 0;
}

Example1: A number of Code Block

#embrace <iostream>

int principal() {
    attempt {
        // Code which will throw an exception
        int numerator = 10;
        int denominator = 0;
        int consequence = numerator / denominator;

        std::cout << "End result: " << consequence << std::endl;
    }
    catch (const std::runtime_error& e) {
        std::cout << "Runtime error occurred: " << e.what() << std::endl;
    }
    catch (const std::exception& e) {
        std::cout << "Exception occurred: " << e.what() << std::endl;
    }

    return 0;
}

Right here, now we have added an extra catch block to deal with a selected sort of exception, std::runtime_error, earlier than catching the extra normal std::exception. The particular exception sorts needs to be caught earlier than the extra normal ones.

Example2: Throwing a Customized Exception

#embrace <iostream>
#embrace <stdexcept>

void checkAge(int age) {
    if (age < 0) {
        throw std::invalid_argument("Age can't be damaging.");
    }
    else if (age < 18) {
        throw std::out_of_range("You should be at the least 18 years outdated.");
    }
    else {
        std::cout << "Entry granted." << std::endl;
    }
}

int principal() {
    attempt {
        int userAge = 15;
        checkAge(userAge);
    }
    catch (const std::exception& e) {
        std::cout << "Exception occurred: " << e.what() << std::endl;
    }

    return 0;
}

On this instance, the checkAge the operate throws customized exceptions, std::invalid_argument and std::out_of_range, based mostly on the age worth offered. The attempt block calls the checkAge operate, and if an exception is thrown, it’s caught and dealt with within the catch block.

The best way to use try-catch in c++?

Attempt-catch is a crucial key phrase whereas performing distinctive situations.
Within the Attempt block, the “throw” key phrase throws an exception when the code detects an issue, which lets us create a customized error.
Now “catch” key phrase comes into an image i.e. “catch” key phrase means that you can outline a block of code to be executed if an error happens within the attempt block.

How do you catch exceptions in C++?

To catch exceptions, part of the code is stored underneath inspection. That is executed by closing that a part of the code in a try-block. When an distinctive circumstance arises inside that block, an exception is thrown and an exception handler takes management over this system.

The best way to throw an exception in c++?

In C++, you possibly can throw an exception utilizing the throw key phrase. Exceptions are a strategy to deal with error situations or distinctive conditions in your code which will disrupt the traditional circulation of execution. When an exception is thrown, this system will cease executing the present block of code and begin looking for an acceptable exception handler (catch block) to deal with the exception.

To throw an exception in C++, you sometimes observe these steps:

Outline a customized exception class (elective):
You may create your personal customized exception class by inheriting from the usual std::exception class or any of its derived lessons. This step is elective, as it’s also possible to use the usual exception lessons offered by the C++ Normal Library.

Throw the exception:
Use the throw key phrase adopted by the exception object you need to throw. In case you have created a customized exception class, you possibly can instantiate an object of that class and cross it to the throw assertion.

Catch the exception (elective):
To deal with the thrown exception, you might want to enclose the code which will throw an exception inside a try-catch block. The catch block will catch the thrown exception and permit you to deal with it gracefully.

Right here’s an instance of how one can throw and catch an exception in C++:

#embrace <iostream>

// Customized exception class (elective)
class MyException : public std::exception {
public:
    digital const char* what() const noexcept override {
        return "My customized exception occurred!";
    }
};

int principal() {
    attempt {
        int age;
        std::cout << "Enter your age: ";
        std::cin >> age;

        if (age < 0) {
            // Throw a customized exception
            throw MyException();
        }

        // Different code which will throw exceptions
        // ...

    } catch (const MyException& ex) {
        std::cout << "Caught customized exception: " << ex.what() << std::endl;
    } catch (const std::exception& ex) {
        // Catch different exceptions derived from std::exception
        std::cout << "Caught normal exception: " << ex.what() << std::endl;
    } catch (...) {
        // Catch another unhandled exceptions (not advisable, however will be helpful for debugging)
        std::cout << "Caught unknown exception." << std::endl;
    }

    return 0;
}

On this instance, if the person enters a damaging age, the MyException object shall be thrown, and it is going to be caught by the corresponding catch block.

C++ Normal Exceptions

In C++, you possibly can create your personal user-defined exceptions to deal with particular error situations in your code. Person-defined exceptions permit you to outline customized exception sorts that inherit from the usual C++ std::exception class or any of its derived lessons. This lets you throw and catch particular exception sorts that signify totally different error conditions.

Right here’s a step-by-step information on how one can outline and use user-defined exceptions in C++:

Step 1: Outline your customized exception class

#embrace <exception>
#embrace <string>

class MyException : public std::exception {
public:
    MyException(const std::string& message) : message_(message) {}

    // Override the what() technique to supply error description
    const char* what() const noexcept override {
        return message_.c_str();
    }

non-public:
    std::string message_;
};

Step 2: Throw the user-defined exception
You may throw the customized exception in your code when a selected error situation is encountered. For instance:

#embrace <iostream>

double divideNumbers(double numerator, double denominator) {
    if (denominator == 0) {
        throw MyException("Division by zero will not be allowed.");
    }
    return numerator / denominator;
}

int principal() {
    attempt {
        double consequence = divideNumbers(10.0, 0.0);
        std::cout << "End result: " << consequence << std::endl;
    } catch (const MyException& ex) {
        std::cout << "Error: " << ex.what() << std::endl;
    }

    return 0;
}

On this instance, we outlined a customized MyException class and used it to throw an exception when dividing by zero within the divideNumbers operate. Within the principal operate, we catch the exception and deal with it by printing the error message.

Step 3: Deal with the user-defined exception
When an exception is thrown, you possibly can catch it utilizing a attempt block and deal with it with a corresponding catch block. On this instance, we catch MyException and print its error message utilizing the what() technique.

Person-defined exceptions are useful for offering significant error messages and dealing with particular error situations in your code. You may create a number of customized exception lessons to signify several types of errors, which permits for higher group and readability in your exception dealing with.

What’s C++ Normal Exceptions?

C++ normal exceptions present an inventory of normal exceptions outlined in <exception> which we are able to use in our packages.
These exceptions are organized in a parent-child class hierarchy:

Person-Outlined Exceptions 

In C++, you possibly can create your personal user-defined exceptions to deal with particular error situations in your code. Person-defined exceptions permit you to outline customized exception sorts that inherit from the usual C++ std::exception class or any of its derived lessons. This lets you throw and catch particular exception sorts that signify totally different error conditions.

Right here’s a step-by-step information on how one can outline and use user-defined exceptions in C++:

Step 1: Outline your customized exception class

#embrace <exception>
#embrace <string>

class MyException : public std::exception {
public:
    MyException(const std::string& message) : message_(message) {}

    // Override the what() technique to supply error description
    const char* what() const noexcept override {
        return message_.c_str();
    }

non-public:
    std::string message_;
};

Step 2: Throw the user-defined exception
You may throw the customized exception in your code when encountering a selected error situation. For instance:

#embrace <iostream>

double divideNumbers(double numerator, double denominator) {
    if (denominator == 0) {
        throw MyException("Division by zero will not be allowed.");
    }
    return numerator / denominator;
}

int principal() {
    attempt {
        double consequence = divideNumbers(10.0, 0.0);
        std::cout << "End result: " << consequence << std::endl;
    } catch (const MyException& ex) {
        std::cout << "Error: " << ex.what() << std::endl;
    }

    return 0;
}

On this instance, we outlined a customized MyException class and used it to throw an exception when dividing by zero within the divideNumbers operate. Within the principal operate, we catch the exception and deal with it by printing the error message.

Step 3: Deal with the user-defined exception
When an exception is thrown, you possibly can catch it utilizing a attempt block and deal with it with a corresponding catch block. On this instance, we catch MyException and print its error message utilizing the what() technique.

Person-defined exceptions are useful for offering significant error messages and dealing with particular error situations in your code. You may create a number of customized exception lessons to signify several types of errors, which permits for higher group and readability in your exception dealing with.

This brings us to the tip of the weblog on Exception Dealing with in C++. Hope this lets you up-skill your C++ abilities. To study extra about programming and different associated ideas, take a look at the programs on Nice Studying Academy

Additionally, in case you are making ready for Interviews, take a look at these Interview Questions for C++ to ace it like a professional

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