Home Machine Learning Stopping Eye Blindness by Predicting Diabetic Retinopathy

Stopping Eye Blindness by Predicting Diabetic Retinopathy

Stopping Eye Blindness by Predicting Diabetic Retinopathy



Diabetic Retinopathy is an eye fixed situation that causes modifications to the blood vessels within the retina. When left untreated, it results in imaginative and prescient loss. So detecting levels of Diabetic Retinopathy is essential for stopping eye blindness. This case research is about detecting eye blindness from the signs of diabetic retinopathy severity to stop the particular person from getting eye blindness. Right here information has been collected from rural areas by numerous educated medical consultants utilizing fundus cameras (cameras that {photograph} the rear of an eye fixed). These pictures have been taken below numerous imaging circumstances. In 2019 Kaggle carried out a contest (APTOS 2019 Blindness Detection) to detect levels of diabetic retinopathy; our information has been taken from the identical Kaggle competitors. Early detection of this Diabetic Retinopathy can assist fast-track the therapy and considerably scale back the chance of imaginative and prescient loss.

Diabetic Retinopathy | Eye blindness

Handbook intervention of educated medical consultants requires effort and time, particularly in underdeveloped international locations. Therefore, the primary intention of this case research is to make use of environment friendly expertise to detect the severity of the situation to stop blindness. We implement deep studying methods to acquire efficient outcomes for classifying the severity of the situation.

Studying Aims

  • Understanding Diabetic Retinopathy: Study in regards to the eye situation and its affect on imaginative and prescient, emphasizing the significance of early detection.
  • Deep Studying Fundamentals: Discover the fundamentals of deep studying and its relevance in diagnosing Diabetic Retinopathy.
  • Knowledge Preprocessing and Augmentation: Perceive how one can successfully put together and improve the dataset for coaching deep studying fashions.
  • Mannequin Choice and Analysis: Study to decide on and assess the efficiency of deep studying fashions for severity classification.
  • Sensible Deployment: Uncover the deployment of one of the best mannequin utilizing Flask for real-world predictions.

This text was printed as part of the Knowledge Science Blogathon.

Enterprise Drawback

Right here particular person’s severity of the situation is classed into 5 classes, i.e., a multi-class classification because the particular person may be acknowledged with solely one of many severity ranges.

Enterprise Constraints

Accuracy and Interpretability are extremely important within the case of the medical discipline. As a result of fallacious predictions direct the best way of ignorance which can take away an individual’s life, we don’t have any strict latency considerations, however we should be correct in regards to the outcomes.

Knowledge Set Description

The information set consists of 3,662 labeled retina photographs of medical sufferers for which educated clinician consultants categorize every picture by way of severity of diabetic retinopathy as beneath.

0 — No Diabetic Retinopathy,

1 — Gentle

2 — Average

3 — Extreme

4 — Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.

Diabetic Retinopathy | Eye blindness

The above desk signifies our dataset photographs recognized with one of many levels of diabetic retinopathy.

Efficiency Metric

We’re taking Quadratic weighted Kappa and Confusion matrix for our multi-class classification as Analysis metrics.

Kappa measures the settlement(similarity) between the precise and predicted labels. A Kappa rating of 1.0 signifies each the predictions and precise labels are the identical, kappa rating of -1 signifies the predictions are distant from the precise labels. Our intention for this metric is to get a kappa rating of greater than 0.6

The Kappa metric performs a vital position in medical prognosis as a result of, within the case of a -1 rating, it signifies how comparable the 2 raters (predicted and precise raters) are and imposes a penalty on the disagreement. For instance, in our case, if our predicted label is 0 and the precise label is 1, then it poses a major problem for the affected person as this case shall be ignored as a result of no additional prognosis is advisable for the affected person.

As we all know, the Confusion matrix is used for evaluating the efficiency of a classification mannequin, The matrix compares the precise goal values with these predicted by our mannequin. This offers us a holistic view of how effectively our classification mannequin performs and what sorts of errors it makes.

Exploratory Knowledge Evaluation and Preprocessing

Allow us to verify the distribution of our information by plotting the bar graph.

EDA and preprocessing | Diabetic Retinopathy | Eye blindness

From the above plot, we will deduce that our information is clearly imbalanced. We want to verify to steadiness our information to stop from getting inaccuracy outcomes.

We are able to apply class weights to take care of uniformity within the information set to acquire uniform distribution within the information.

Our coaching dataset incorporates solely 3,662 photographs, so the Dataset offered by Kaggle may be very small. It’s fascinating to overfit due to coaching on the small information set, so right here preprocessing performs a vital position in higher efficiency by rising our datasets. So we head for the information augmentation to enhance our datasets. Earlier than information augmentation, we have to verify for the picture circumstances, as the information has been collected from numerous sources, like whether or not the pictures are very darkish, have an additional black background, and are photographs of assorted picture sizes. Therefore, we have to apply smoothing methods to the pictures to take care of uniformity within the picture high quality by cropping additional black backgrounds, resizing the pictures to a typical picture dimension, and so forth.

 Source: Author

From above, we will observe our information set incorporates photographs of various sizes with horizontal cropping, vertical cropping, and further black areas.

We apply beneath smoothing methods to acquire all the pictures in uniform high quality.

Crop Operate

→ Crop function-use it for eradicating additional darkish elements across the picture

def crop(img,tol=7):
 # right here tol is tolerance  
  this crop operate is used for eradicating darkparts arounds the picture

  if img.ndim==2:
# this loop is used for cropping GRAY photographs
    return img[np.ix_(mask.any(1),mask.any(0))]
  elif img.ndim==3:
# this loop is used for cropping shade photographs    
    if shap==0:
# picture is just too darkish in order that we crop out all the pieces   
      return img
    return img #import csv

The beneath determine signifies that after making use of the operate, we get hold of photographs by cropping darkish elements round it.

 Source: Author

→ Circle Crop operate crops a picture circularly by taking reference from the middle.

def circlecrop(img):
  used for cropping picture in a round means from picture centre

  h,w,d= img.form
  x = int(w/2)
  y = int(h/2)
  r = np.amin((x,y))
  circle_img = np.zeros((h,w), np.uint8)
  cv2.circle(circle_img, (x,y), int(r), 1, thickness=-1)
  img = cv2.bitwise_and(img, img, masks=circle_img) 
  return img

The beneath determine is obtained after making use of the round crop operate

 Source: Author

Ben Graham’s Operate

→Ben Graham’s function- This operate is utilized to enhance picture brightness

def ben(img,sigmaX=10):
  Ben Graham's methodology to enhance lighting situation.

  picture=cv2.addWeighted( img,4, cv2.GaussianBlur( img , (0,0) , sigmaX) ,-4 ,128)
  return picture

The beneath determine signifies after making use of Ben Graham’s operate, we improved the lighting situation of the picture.

 Source: Author

Let’s verify the preprocessed retina photographs after making use of the above capabilities.

retina images | Diabetic Retinopathy | Eye blindness

As our dataset may be very small, we might result in overfitting. To beat this state of affairs, we have to enhance our coaching information. Enhance the information utilizing augmentation methods like horizontal flipping, Vertical flipping, rotating photographs, zooming, and setting brightness.

from keras_preprocessing.picture import ImageDataGenerator

                           brightness_range=[0.5, 1],
                           zoom_range = 0.2,rescale=1./255.,validation_split=0.25)
validation_datagen = ImageDataGenerator(rescale = 1./255)

target_size=(256, 256))

As we’ve got used validation break up as 0.25, we get 2,747 prepare and 915 validation photographs.

Right here every picture is replicated 5 occasions as we’ve got used 5 methods horizontal flip, vertical flip, rotation vary, brightness vary, and zoom vary.

Deep Studying Mannequin

First, we assemble a baseline mannequin with easy CNN structure.

x=MaxPooling2D(pool_size=(2, 2))(x)
x=Dense(5, activation='softmax')(x)

For the above mannequin, we get a kappa rating of 0.554, which isn’t acceptable for predicting the stage of the situation.

We head for switch studying to make use of the pretrained mannequin for attaining a excessive kappa rating.


model_vgg16= VGG16(weights="imagenet", include_top=False,input_shape=(256,256, 3))
x=Dense(5, activation='softmax')(x)

→Practice Cohen Kappa rating: 0.913

→Practice Accuracy rating: 0.817

From the above mannequin, we get a kappa rating of 0.913


modeldense=DenseNet121(weights="imagenet", include_top=False,input_shape=(256,256, 3))
x=Dense(5, activation='softmax')(x)

→Practice Cohen Kappa rating: 0.933

→Practice Accuracy rating: 0.884

From the above mannequin, we get a kappa rating of 0.933


modelres152=ResNet152(weights="imagenet", include_top=False,input_shape=(256,256, 3))
x=Dense(5, activation='softmax')(x)

→Practice Cohen Kappa rating: 0.910

→Practice Accuracy rating: 0.844

From the above mannequin, we get a kappa rating of 0.91


After implementing numerous environment friendly fashions like EEfficientNetB0, B3, B4, and B7, we will generate higher outcomes utilizing EfficientNetB7.

modeleffB7=EfficientNetB7(weights="imagenet", include_top=False,input_shape=(256,256, 3))
x=Dense(5, activation='softmax')(x)

→Practice Cohen Kappa rating: 0.877

→Practice Accuracy rating: 0.838

From the above mannequin, we get a kappa rating of 0.877


modelxcep=Xception(weights="imagenet", include_top=False,input_shape=(256,256, 3))
x=Dense(5, activation='softmax')(x)

→Practice Cohen Kappa rating: 0.925

→Practice Accuracy rating: 0.854

From the above mannequin, we get a kappa rating of 0.925

 Source: Author

From the above mannequin, we observe Denset mannequin obtains a greater Kappa rating. So we select our Denset mannequin as one of the best and head for stage prediction.

Prediction Utilizing Our Greatest Mannequin

Predicting the levels utilizing our greatest mannequin:

X='/content material/00a8624548a9.png'
img = cv2.imread(X)
img = cv2.resize(img,(256,256),interpolation=cv2.INTER_AREA)
img = np.reshape(img,[1,256,256,3])
cd = ImageDataGenerator(horizontal_flip=True,vertical_flip=True,
                          rotation_range=360,brightness_range=[0.5, 1],
                           zoom_range = 0.2,rescale=1./255)
cg = cd.circulate(img,batch_size=1)
tp = mannequin.predict(cg)
if op==0:
  matter="Stage 0 - No Diabetic Retinopathy"
elif op==1:
  matter="Stage 1 - Gentle"
elif op==2:
  matter="Stage 2 - Average"
elif op==3:
  matter="Stage 3 - Extreme"
elif op==4:
  matter="Stage 4 - Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy"

From the above picture, we will observe that our greatest mannequin predicts the levels of diabetic retinopathy.

Deployment of Our Mannequin Utilizing Flask

I’ve used Flask for deploying my mannequin in order that we will predict the stage of shade blindness of our uploaded retina picture. Beneath is the video of working cases of my deployed mannequin.


In conclusion, this weblog has showcased the transformative energy of deep studying in detecting Diabetic Retinopathy and stopping imaginative and prescient loss. With early detection and correct severity classification, AI can considerably enhance affected person outcomes. The actual-world applicability of those methods via mannequin deployment utilizing Flask highlights their practicality in healthcare settings.

Continued analysis in augmentation methods and mannequin refinement will additional improve diagnostic capabilities. By harnessing the potential of AI, we will revolutionize medical prognosis and pave the best way for a more healthy future.

  • Deep studying fashions, resembling VGG-16, DENSENET, RESNET, EFFICIENTNET, and XCEPTION, have successfully categorised the severity of Diabetic Retinopathy.
  • The perfect-performing mannequin, DENSENET, achieved excessive Kappa scores, demonstrating its functionality for correct predictions.
  • Knowledge preprocessing and augmentation are important in enhancing the mannequin’s efficiency and generalizability.
  • Flask deployment showcases the sensible applicability of deep studying in real-world eventualities, facilitating environment friendly prognosis and therapy.
  • Continued analysis in augmentation methods and mannequin refinement holds the potential for additional enhancing diagnostic accuracy and advancing medical prognosis utilizing AI.

Future Work

  • We are able to implement extra augmentation methods.
  • We are able to check out numerous convolutional layers on our fashions.
  • Must seize extra retina photographs for coaching.

Often Requested Questions

Q1. What’s Diabetic Retinopathy, and why is it important to detect it early?

A1. Diabetic Retinopathy is an eye fixed situation that occurs by modifications within the retina’s blood vessels. Early detection is important because it permits well timed intervention, stopping imaginative and prescient loss and blindness.

Q2. How does deep studying assist in diagnosing Diabetic Retinopathy?

A2. Deep studying methods, resembling CNNs, analyze retina photographs to categorise the severity of Diabetic Retinopathy precisely. They study patterns and options from information, aiding in environment friendly prognosis.

Q3. What key efficiency metrics are used to guage the deep studying fashions?

A3. The weblog used Quadratic Weighted Kappa and Confusion Matrix as analysis metrics. Quadratic Weighted Kappa measures settlement between predicted and precise labels, whereas the Confusion Matrix offers a holistic view of mannequin efficiency.

This autumn. What are the benefits of utilizing deep studying fashions for Diabetic Retinopathy detection in comparison with conventional machine studying approaches?

A4. Deep studying fashions can robotically study complicated patterns and options from information, making them simpler in capturing intricate particulars in retina photographs. This allows deep studying fashions to outperform conventional machine studying approaches in accuracy and diagnostic capabilities for Diabetic Retinopathy detection.

Q5. What are some potential challenges or limitations when making use of deep studying fashions to detect Diabetic Retinopathy?

A5. Some challenges and limitations might embrace the necessity for intensive and numerous datasets, potential overfitting with small datasets, interpretability of deep studying fashions, and the requirement for vital computational sources for coaching and inference. Addressing these challenges is important for making certain dependable and sensible deep-learning functions in Diabetic Retinopathy prognosis.


  • https://github.com/btgraham/SparseConvNet/blob/kaggle_Diabetic_Retinopathy_competition/competitionreport.pdf
  • https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.11946
  • https://arxiv.org/abs/0704.1028
  • https://www.kaggle.com/xhlulu/aptos-2019-densenet-keras-starter
  • https://www.kaggle.com/c/aptos2019-blindness-detection/dialogue/108065

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